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For years, those who questioned the NYPD’s vast stop-and-frisk program were told by its supporters that it was an essential crime fighting tool. But four years after stop-and-frisk’s peak of nearly 700,000 stops in 2011, an analysis of NYPD data shows serious crimes have fallen significantly, as stop-and-frisks have declined drastically.
In New York City, year after year it is the most frequent reason a person is arrested. Statewide, New York’s marijuana arrest rate of 535 arrests per 100,000 people was the highest of any state in 2010 and double the national average. That year there were 103,698 marijuana-possession arrests in New York State – 29,000 more than Texas, the state with the next highest total.
Do I have the right to an attorney?
Today, if you are accused of a crime, you have the right to retain an attorney. Under the U.S. Constitution and the New York State Constitution, if you cannot afford an attorney, a public defense attorney should be provided for you at the expense of the state.
When should I first talk to my attorney?
The right to an attorney is guaranteed under the United States Constitution. In 1963, the United States Supreme Court unanimously ruled in Gideon v. Wainwright that everyone accused of a crime is entitled to a competent lawyer even if he or she cannot afford one.
The year 2013 was a dramatic one for the NYPD’s stop-and-frisk program.
As the public controversy over stop-and-frisk became a central issue in the campaign to succeed Mayor Michael Bloomberg, street interrogations fell precipitously during the year to 191,558 recorded stops – the lowest since 2004. And the last quarter of 2013 had fewer than 13,000 stops, putting the city on pace for 50,000 annual stops.
The dramatic increase in stop-and-frisk was the signature public safety initiative during the 12 years that Michael Bloomberg was the mayor of New York City and Raymond Kelly served as commissioner of the NYPD. That initiative sparked a national controversy, cast a cloud over a time when murders fell to record lows, and became the central issue leading to the election of Bill de Blasio, who ran on a commitment to reform stop-and-frisk.
The NYCLU’s report -- Beyond “Deliberate Indifference”: An NYPD for All New Yorkers – documents the failures of the NYPD under the Bloomberg administration with regard to discriminatory policing practices. It also provides detailed recommendations for Mayor-elect Bill de Blasio to guide much-needed reform and offers a roadmap for a transparent, accountable NYPD that responds to, and respects, the needs of all New Yorkers.
In May 2012, the New York Civil Liberties Union released a detailed analysis of the NYPD’s stop-and-frisk activity during 2011. Based on the NYPD database that the Department now makes public following earlier NYCLU litigation, the 2011 report examined stops, frisks, summonses, arrests, the use of force and gun recoveries, all on a citywide and precinct basis. The 2011 report also delved into the wide racial disparities in the NYPD’s stop-and-frisk regime.
This report, Boxed In: The True Cost of Extreme Isolation in New York’s Prisons, is the product of an intensive, year-long investigation that involved communication with more than 100 people who have spent significant amounts of time – in one case, more than 20 years – in extreme isolation. The authors interviewed prisoners’ family members and corrections staff, and analyzed thousands of pages of Department of Corrections and Community Supervision (DOCCS) records obtained through the state’s open records laws.